The ultimate guide to minting NFTs on the Cardano blockchain

Alex | @ruttkowa
15 min readApr 30, 2021

Update: If you’re more of a video guy – here’s my video walkthrough:

There are currently two ways to make your own NFTs.

  1. For the not so tech savy through someone else.
  2. For the more tech savy on a cardano node

Each way has pros and cons. Some of which I highlighted in a recent article.

To make a long story short — if you want to have full control over your tokens you need to mint them yourself. And this is what this guide is all about.

Minting requires a certain amout skill in navigating and working with linux through the terminal as well as a running cardano node.

I will not go into the details on how to spin up a Cardano node, but there are many good documentations:

Note: You don’t need a stake pool to mint your own tokens. A so called relay is just fine.

This guide is intended as copy & pasteable as possible. But there’s still room for human error. If you run into some errors, typos etc please let me know.


Here are some assumptions I am going to make about you — the reader:

  • You have a full node running in testnet. If you want to mint tokens in mainnet, substitue the $testnet variable with mainnet
  • The cardano node version for this test uses v1.26.1
  • You have some knowledge in linux as to navigation between directories, creating and editing files as well as setting and inspecting variables via linux shell
  • You have a user which has access to the cardano-cli command
  • If you want to make NFTs and have an image linked, that image already needs to be uploaded somewhere (preferably IPFS) and you should have that hash availiable.

I always like to start by giving some orientation, so here’s an overview what kind of files and folders we are going to create in the course of this guide.

├── burning.raw                    # Raw transaction to burn token
├── burning.signed # Signed transaction to burn token
├── matx.raw # Raw transaction to mint token
├── matx.signed # Signed transaction to mint token
├── metadata.json # Metadata to specify NFT attributes
├── payment.addr # Address to send / recieve
├── payment.skey # Payment signing key
├── payment.vkey # Payment verification key
├── policy # Folder which holds everything policywise
│ ├── policy.script # Script to genereate the policyID
│ ├── policy.skey # Policy signing key
│ ├── policy.vkey # Policy verification key
│ └── policyID # File which holds the policy ID
└── protocol.json # Protocol parameters


Before we start let’s set a variable to make readability a bit easier.

testnet="testnet-magic 1097911063"

This will be an ongoing theme in this tutorial. We sometimes will save outputs or strings into variables so we can reference them in a more readable way.

To work with the Cardano Node we also need to set a variable called CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH.
The path to the socket is always specified in the start up command of the node.
So either you know it by heart or you pull up your starting command / unit file for the node and check where the .socket file is located.

I, for example, start my node with the following command:

/home/alex/.local/bin/cardano-node run \
--topology config/testnet-topology.json \
--database-path db \
--socket-path /home/alex/TESTNET_NODE/socket/node.socket \
--port 3001 \
--config config/testnet-config.json

so we need to export this specific socket path (bold) to the variable CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH

export CARDANO_NODE_SOCKET_PATH="/home/alex/TESTNET_NODE/socket/node.socket"

You obviously need to adjust the path on your setup and your socket path accordingly.

Check node status

We also want to check if our Node is up to date. To do that we simply check the current epoch / block and compare it to the current value displayed in the Cardano Explorer for the testnet.

Current Block in Epoch 128 = 2528369
Query showing that node is not fully synced and a few blocks behind but this should work nonetheless

Another good way to quickly check your node is to issue the query tip for a couple of seconds and check if the slot is changing.

Now we’re set up and good to go.

To keep a clean working enviroment we create a new directory and change into it.

mkdir tokens
cd tokens/

Build the keys & address

First of all we need to create a payment key set (verification and signing).

cardano-cli address key-gen --verification-key-file payment.vkey --signing-key-file payment.skey

Fuse them together to build an address to recieve funds and send ADA and tokens:

cardano-cli address build --payment-verification-key-file payment.vkey --out-file payment.addr --$testnet

Save address for later use in a variable called address:

address=$(cat payment.addr)

To mint tokens we also need to have some ADA.
In the testnet, you can request funds trough the faucet.
Just enter the address we just exportet to our “address” variable and hit request.

echo $address

After a couple of seconds you should have recieved the funds and can check those with:

cardano-cli query utxo --address $address --$testnet

To build a transaction and calculate the fees to mint the tokens, we need the current protocol parameters. Let’s query them and save them in a file called protocol.json to reference later on.

cardano-cli query protocol-parameters --$testnet --out-file protocol.json

Generate the policy

Policies are the defining factor under which tokens can be minted. Only those in possession of the policy keys can mint or burn tokens, minted under this specific policy.
We’ll make a seperate sub-director in our work directory to keep everything policy-wise seperated and more organzied.

mkdir policy

Note: we don’t change into this directory and everything is done from our working directory

First of all we — again — need some key pairs:

cardano-cli address key-gen \
--verification-key-file policy/policy.vkey \
--signing-key-file policy/policy.skey

Create a policy.script file and fill it with an empty string

touch policy/policy.script && echo "" > policy/policy.script

Use echo to populate the file:

echo "{" >> policy/policy.script 
echo " \"keyHash\": \"$(cardano-cli address key-hash --payment-verification-key-file policy/policy.vkey)\"," >> policy/policy.script
echo " \"type\": \"sig\"" >> policy/policy.script
echo "}" >> policy/policy.script

Note: the second echo uses a sub-shell comand to genereate the so called key-hash. You could also do that by hand but I’m lazy ;)

The end result is a simple script file which defines the policy verification key as a witness / to sign the minting transaction.

Asset Minting

To mint the asset, we need to generate the policy ID from the script file we just created.

cardano-cli transaction policyid --script-file ./policy/policy.script >> policy/policyID

The output gets saved to the file policyID as we need to reference it later on.

Additionally we need some metadata to attach to the transaction. Metadata helps us to display things like image URIs and stuff that truly makes it a NFT. With this workaround, third party plattforms like can easily trace back to the last minting transaction, read the metadata and query images and attributes accordingly.

The one thing to keep in mind — the names (in our case “Testtoken” and “MunichMetalCoin”) are case sensitive and need to match the names in the minting transaction.
We’ll leave the image property blank for now — if you want to attach an image best practice suggests you paste in your ipfs:// hash.

Here’s an example of my metadata.json which we’ll use for this guide:

"721": {
"please_insert_policyID_here": {
"Testtoken": {
"description": "This is just a testtoken",
"name": "One of ten testtokens",
"id": 1,
"name": "This is my first test token",
"image": ""
"please_insert_policyID_here": {
"MunichMetalCoin": {
"description": "One coin to rule them all",
"name": "One of ten Munich Metal Coins",
"id": 1,
"name": "This is my first test token",
"image": ""

Take note / copy the policyID

cat policy/policyID

And create a new file called metadata.json with your favorite editor

vi metadata.json

Paste in the json structure posted above and subsitute the “please_insert_policyID_here” string with our previously made policy ID.

Build the raw transaction to send to one self

To mint the tokens we will make a transaction using our previously generated and funded address.
Within this transaction we will define an minting action and attach the metadata.json to it.
Therefore our attributes will be bound immutably to the minting action, making our token(s) a true NFT.

A quick word about transactions in Cardano

Each transaction in Cardano requires the payment of a fee which — as of now — will mostly be determined by the size of what we want to transmit.
The more bytes get sent, the higher the fee.

That’s why making a transaction in Cardano is a three way process.

  1. First we will build a transaction, resulting in a file. This will be the foundation of how the transaction fee will be calculated.
  2. We use this “raw” file and our protocol parameters to calculate our fees
  3. Then we need re-build the transaction including the correct fee and the adjusted amount which we’re able to send.
    Since we send it to ourself the output needs to be the amount of our fundings minus the calculated fee.

Another thing to keep in mind is the model how transactions and “balances” are designed in Cardano.
Each transaction has one (or multiple) input (the source of your funds, like which bill you’d like to use in your wallet to pay) and one or multiple outputs.
In our minting example the input and output will be our own address.

In a way the minting process is the same as taking a bill out of your wallet and changing it to coins and some tokens.

Later on we will actually send some tokens to another wallet.
In this transaction we not only need to define the receiver of the tokens, we also need to specify what to do with the “leftovers”.
Think of it like buying ice cream.
If you’d pay the ice cream man in ADA you’d not only need to determine how much you pay for your ice cream, you’d also need determine how much you overpaid and will get back.

I hope this makes any sense — anyhow, moving along.

Before we start, we will need some setup, to make the transaction building easier. Query the payment address and take note of the different values presentet.

cardano-cli query utxo --address $address --$testnet

the output looks something like this (your TxHash as well as funds will vary):

We will store each of those values in a corresponding variable to make it easier to build and read our transactions.

txhash="insert your txhash here"txix="insert your TxIx here"funds="insert Amount here"policyid=$(cat policy/policyID)

For our example we will be making 10 Testtoken and 10 MunichMetalCoins for a total of 20 token. So we set those as variables as well:


After setting every variable, your terminal should look something like this:

Now we build the first transaction to calculate our fee and save it in a file called matx.raw.

Before we build the transaction, take a look at this overview. Hhere’s the syntax as to which parameters we define in our minting transaction:

  • — fee: The network fee we need to pay for our transaction. Fees will be calculated through the network parameters and depending on the size (in bytes) our transaction will have. The bigger the file size, the higher the fee.
  • — tx-in: The hash of our address we use as the input for the transaction. Needs sufficient funds.
    Syntax is: the hash, followed by a hashtag, followed by the value of TxIx of the corresponding hash.
    Because we saved those values in variables, we will reference the variables in our transaction to improve readability.
  • — tx-out: Here is where part one of the magic happens. We need to specify which address will recieve our transaction. In our case we send the tokens to our own address
    The word for word syntax is (there are no spaces unless explicitly stated):
  1. address hash
  2. a plus sign
  3. the output in lovelace (ADA) (output = input amount — fee)
  4. a plus sign
  5. quotation marks
  6. the amount of the token
  7. a blank / space
  8. the policy id
  9. a dot
  10. the token name
  11. (optional if you want multiple / different tokens: a blank, a plus, a blank, and start over at 6.)
  12. quotation marks
  • — mint: Again, the same syntax as specified in — tx-out but without the address and output, therefore starting at 5. from the — tx-out parameters.
  • — metadata-json-file: The path to our metadata.json which we will attach to our transaction.
  • — out-file: We save our transaction to a file which you can name however you want. Just be sure to reference the correct filename in upcoming commands. I chose to stick with the official docs and declared it as matx.raw.

So, with those parameters in mind, this is what our transaction build command looks like.

cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--fee $fee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $address+$output+"$tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname1 + $tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--mint="$tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname1 + $tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--metadata-json-file metadata.json \
--out-file matx.raw

Based on this raw transaction we can calculate the minimal transaction fee and store it in the variable $fee. We get a bit fancy here and only store the value so we can use the variable for terminal based calculations:

fee=$(cardano-cli transaction calculate-min-fee --tx-body-file matx.raw --tx-in-count 1 --tx-out-count 1 --witness-count 1 --$testnet --protocol-params-file protocol.json | cut -d " " -f1)

Remember —with Cardano transactions the Input and the output of ADA must be equal or otherwise the transaction will fail.
To calculate the remaining output wee need to subtract the fee from our funds and save the result in our output variable.

output=$(expr $funds - $fee)

We now have every value we need, so we can re-build the transaction, ready to be signed. To re-build we just issue the same command again, the only difference being our variables now holding the correct values.

cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--fee $fee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $address+$output+"$tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname1 + $tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--mint="$tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname1 + $tokenamount $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--metadata-json-file metadata.json \
--out-file matx.raw

Transactions need to be signed to prove authenticity and ownership of the policy key.

The sign command looks like this:

cardano-cli transaction sign  \
--signing-key-file payment.skey \
--signing-key-file policy/policy.skey \
--script-file policy/policy.script \
--$testnet --tx-body-file matx.raw \
--out-file matx.signed

Note: the signed transaction will be saved in a new file called matx.signed.

Ready, set, mint:

cardano-cli transaction submit --tx-file matx.signed --$testnet

Congratulations we have now successfully minted our own token.
After a couple of seconds we can check out address

cardano-cli query utxo --address $address --$testnet
Check out our newly minted tokens in the “Amount” section.

Registering the token to the registry

If you want to, you can now register your token in the Cardano token registry.
The goal is to offer a off-chain registry for metadata and — in turn — mapping it to on-chain identifiers like the asset ID etc.

Check out their Wiki if you want to know more.

Sending token to a wallet

Now that we have our tokens, we also want to send them to another address. For this guide, I’ve downloaded the Daedalus wallet for the testnet.

To send our tokens — you guessed it — we need to build another transaction:
As with the minting process, I am going to assign a few variables for better readability.

reciever="Insert a Daedalus testnet wallet address here"
funds="Only the availiable lovelace"

You should however have still access to the other variables from the minting process.
Please check if those variables are set:

echo Tokenname 1: $tokenname1
echo Tokenname 2: $tokenname2
echo Address: $address
echo Policy ID: $policyid

For our example we will send 2 of our first tokens to the Daedalus address.
A few things worth pointing out:

  • We are forced to send at least a minimum of 1 ADA (1000000 lovelace) to the remote address. We can not send tokens only. So we need to factor this value in to our output. We will reference the output value of the remote address with the variable reciever_output.
  • Apart from the recieving address we also need to set our own address as an additional output. Since we don’t want to send everything we have to the remote address, we’re going to use our own address to recieve everything else, coming from the input.
  • Our own address therefore needs to recieve our funds, subtracted by the transaction fee as well as the minimum of 1 ADA we need to send to the other address and
  • all of the tokens the txhash currently holds, subtracted by the tokens we send.

In our case we will send 2 of our first tokens to the remote address so we’re left with 8 as well as the additional 10 tokens from tokenname2

Here’s what the raw transaction looks like:

cardano-cli transaction build-raw  \
--fee $fee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $reciever+$reciever_output+"2 $policyid.$tokenname1" \
--tx-out $address+$output+"8 $policyid.$tokenname1 + 10 $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--out-file rec_matx.raw

Calculate output to own address

Again we are going to calculate the fee and save it in a variable.

fee=$(cardano-cli transaction calculate-min-fee \
--tx-body-file rec_matx.raw \
--tx-in-count 1 \
--tx-out-count 2 \
--witness-count 1 \
--testnet-magic 3 \
--protocol-params-file protocol.json) | cut -d " " -f1)

As stated above, we need to calculate the leftovers which are going to get sent back to our address.
The logic being:
TxHash Amout — fee — min Send 10 ADA in lovelace = the output for our own address

output=$(expr $funds - $fee - 10000000)

Let’s update the transaction

cardano-cli transaction build-raw  \
--fee $fee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $reciever+$reciever_output+"2 $policyid.$tokenname1" \
--tx-out $address+$output+"8 $policyid.$tokenname1 + 10 $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--out-file rec_matx.raw

sign it

cardano-cli transaction sign --signing-key-file payment.skey --$testnet --tx-body-file rec_matx.raw --out-file rec_matx.signed

and send it

cardano-cli transaction submit --tx-file rec_matx.signed --$testnet

And after a couple of seconds we should see our transaction including our asset in our Daedalust testnet wallet:

Testtokens recieved in Daedalus Wallet

How to burn Token

For the last part of our token lifecycle we will burn 5 of our newly made tokens and therefore destroying them permanently.

You won’t be suprised that this — again — will be done with a transaction.
If you’ve followed this guid up to this point you should be familiar with the process, so let’s start over

Set everything up and check our address:

cardano-cli query utxo --address $address --$testnet

Note: Since we’ve already sent 2 tokens away, we’re left with 10 MunichMetalCoins and 8 Testtoken. So we need to adjust the amount of Testtoken we are going to send to 8.

Let’s set our variables accordingly (if not already set). Variables like address and the token names should also be set.

txhash="insert your txhash here"
txix="insert your TxIx here"
funds="insert Amount only in here"
policyid=$(cat policy/policyID)

Burning tokens is fairly straightforward.
You will issue a new minting action, but this time with a negative input. This will essentially substract the amount of token.

cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--fee $burnfee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $address+$burnoutput+"8 $policyid.$tokenname1 + 5 $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--mint="-5 $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--out-file burning.raw

Note: since we already have multiple transaction files laying around, I’ve decided to give this transaction a better name and called it burning.raw.
We also need to specify the amount of tokens, left after destroying.
The math is:
amount of input token — amount of destroyed token = amount of output token

As usual, we need to calculate the fee. To make a better differentiation I decided to name the variable burnfee:

burnfee=$(cardano-cli transaction calculate-min-fee --tx-body-file burning.raw --tx-in-count 1 --tx-out-count 1 --witness-count 1 --$testnet --protocol-params-file protocol.json | cut -d " " -f1)

Get the correct lovelace output

burnoutput=$(expr $funds - $burnfee)

Re build the transaction with the correct amounts

cardano-cli transaction build-raw \
--fee $burnfee \
--tx-in $txhash#$txix \
--tx-out $address+$burnoutput+"8 $policyid.$tokenname1 + 5 $policyid.$tokenname2"\
--mint="-5 $policyid.$tokenname2" \
--out-file burning.raw

Sign the transaction

cardano-cli transaction sign  \
--signing-key-file payment.skey \
--signing-key-file policy/policy.skey \
--script-file policy/policy.script \
--$testnet \
--tx-body-file burning.raw \
--out-file burning.signed

Send it

cardano-cli transaction submit --tx-file burning.signed --$testnet

Check your address — you should now have 5 tokens less than before

cardano-cli query utxo --address $address --$testnet
New TxHash with only 5 MunichMetalCoins and 8 Testtoken

Thank you for reading and maybe even sharing my article.
This was a hell lot of work.

If you want to support me please feel free to send some ADA to:


or delegate your stake to my stake pool — thanks!




Alex | @ruttkowa

Munich Metal | Cardano Ambassador | I want to show how tech can help you | 🇩🇪 & 🇬🇧